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Senin, 14 November 2011

makalah tenses


       PREFACE


Praise be to Allah who has helped his servant resolve this paper with full facilities. Without the help of writer he may not be able to complete the well.

Papers are arranged so that readers can know the truth TENSES use in our daily life we serve based on observations from various sources. This paper are stacked by the compiler with various obstacles. As well as those coming from the framer or coming from outside. But with patience and especially the help from Allah SWT end of this article can be resolved.

It contains articles on "16 TENSES" and deliberately chosen because it is a task and just the knowledge of readers.
Organizer also like to thank the teachers who have given this task and to parents who have supported the making of this paper.
Hopefully this paper can provide insight to readers. Although this paper has advantages and disadvantages.Thank you.


author










 TENSES
1.  SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
used to declare an act or event that occurs during repeated ekarang or event or something that is a daily habit.

FORMULA :

Positive:
A.   S + TO BE ( is,am,are ) + . . .
B.   S + VERB I + . .
Negative :
-         S + TO BE + not +  . . .
Introgative :
-         TO BE + S +  . . . + ?
-         TO BE + not + S +  . . + ?

Ø The simple present tense expresses daily habits or usual activities.
-         I usually eat lunch at the cafetaria.
-         We usually drink coffe for breakfast.

Ø The simple present tense expresses general statements af fact.
-         The sun sets in the west.
-         The sky is blue.
-         A square has four equal sides.
TIME SIGNAL


-         Always
-         A rule
-         Generally
-         Usually
-         Often
-         Never
-         Seldom
-         Sometimes
-         Here
-         Every week
-         Once a week
-         Etc



2.  SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
used to declare an act or event that is ongoing and has not been completed at a time when now.
FORMULA :
Positive :
-         S + TO BE ( is,am,are ) + V I (ing) + . .  .
Negative :
-         S + TO BE + not + V I (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         TO BE + S + V I (ing) + . . . + ?
-         TO BE + not + S + V I (ing) + . . . + ?

Ø The present continuous tense expresses works in progress.
-         They are playing football now.
-         We are studying math now.


Ø The present continuous tense expresses actions are temporary.
-         I am studying now but i will go out soon.

Ø The present coninuous tense expresses actions that took place in the future.
-         We are playing again in a few days.
-         I am going plaza mall tomorrow.



TIME SIGNAL


-         Now
-         Right now
-         Today soon
-         This mornig
-         To nigh
-         In a few days
-         At present
-         Etc




3.  SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.
 used to declare an act or event that has been completed on time now
FORMULA :
Positive :
-         S + have/has +  V III (been) +  . . .
Negative :
-         S + have/has + not + V III (been) +  . . .
Introgative ;
-         Have/has + S + V III + (been) + . . . + ?
-         Have/has + not + S + V III + (been) + . . . + ?

Ø To expresses an act or event that occurred in the past and mash something to do with the present.
-         He has been here since morning.
-         I have been just now.
-         She has been busy since this morning.



Ø To expresses acts that have occurred.
-         I have seen Mr. Daud Salam

Ø  To expresses action replay in time indefinite. in this case is often used words such as before, already, ever, never, yet.
-         We had breakfast already .

Ø To expresses act which was completed in a short time. for this frequently used words such as finally, just, recently.
-         He has just spoken to me.


4.  SIMPLE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
declare an event that started in the past and until now still in progress.
          FORMULA :
Positive :
-         S + have/ has + been + V I (ing) + . . .
Negative :
-         S + have/ has + not + been + V I (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         have/ has + S + been + V I (ing) + . . .

-         have/ has + not +S +  been + V I (ing) + . . .
         
         
Example :
-         I have been waiting here since morning.
-         We have been swimming since january.
-         He has been studying indonesian for two years.
-         He has been  staying in batam since 2001.
-         Mr. Murtadoh has been walking for five hours.
-         We have been living in batam for five years.
TIME SIGNAL
-         For
-         Since
-         Long
-         How long
-         The whole day
-         All afternoon
-         For over two years


5.  SIMPLE PAST TENSE
declare an event that happened in the past and is happening in the past as well.
          FORMULA :
POSITIVE :
A.   S + To Be ( was, were ) + . . .
B.   S + V II + . . .

NEGATIVE :
-         S + was,were + not + . . .

INTROGATIVE :
-         Was, were + S +  . . . + ?
-         Was, were + not + S +  . . . + ?

          Example :
-         I was three last night.
-         We were happy last week-end.
-         He was sick last month.
-         Miss Elsa was in australia last januari.
-         I ate some apples two days ago.
-         We did sing indonesia raya yesterday.
TIME SIGNAL
-         Yesterday
-         Last month
-         An hour ago
-         Last Monday
-         Every day last year
-         A few minutes ago
-         A forth night ago
6.  SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
used to declare an act or event which is being held in the past.
FORMULA :
Positive ;
-         S + TO BE (was,were) +V I (ing) + . . .
Negative :
-         S + TO BE (was,were) +not +V I (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         TO BE (was,were) + S + V I (ing) + . . . + ?
-         TO BE (was,were) +not + S + V I (ing) + . . . + ?
         
          Example :
-         I was watching TV when you came.
-         She wasn’t studying when you phoned her.
-         They were swimming at nine yesterday morning.
-         Weren’t you plsying the piano as my mother entered the room ?
TIME SIGNAL
-         When
-         While
-         As
-         All day yesterday
-         The whole day last Monday

7.  SIMPLE PAST PERFECT TENSE
used to describe an act or event that has been done in the past.
FORMULA :
Positive :
-         S + had + V III (been) + . . .
Negative :
-         S + had + not + V III (been) +  . . .
Introgative :
-         Had + S + V III (been) + . . . + ?
-         Had + not + S + VIII (been ) + . . . + ?

Example :
-         I had been at home before you arrived.
-         We hadn’t walked for an hour when he met us
-         She had studied English for an hour when I began it.
-         H. sobirin had waited for me for two hours before you came.

8.  SIMPLE  PAST  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
used to declare an act or event which has already begun in the past and is still going on in the past anyway.
          FORMULA :
Positive :
-         S + had + been + V I (ing) +  . . .
Negative :
-         S + had + not + V I (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         Had + S + V I (ing) +  . . . + ?
-         Had + not + S + V I (ing) + . . .+ ?
         
          Example :
-         They had been living in batam about ten years when I came in 2005.
-         She had been watching the programs when I finished my lunch.
-         You had been walking for an hour when I met you
-         My sister had been watching the programs when I finished my lunch.

9.  SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
used to declare an act or event that occurs in the future.
          FORMULA ;
Positive :
-         S + shall,will + V I (be) + . . .
-         S  + TO BE ( is, am, are ) + going to + V I (be) +  . . .
Negative :
-         S + shall, will + not + VI (be )
Introgative :
-         Shall, will + S + V I (be) + . . .+ ?
-         Shall, will + not + S + VI (be) +  . . .+ ?
         
          Example :
-         I shall come here to night.
-         We shall go to bali next Saturday night.
-         You will be twenty years aold next month.
-         Tohir and fitri will go to batam next Friday.
-         He will come to my house this evening.
TIME SIGNAL


-         This afternoon
-         To night
-         Tomorrow
-         If
-         Before
-         After
-         Till
-         Soon
-         When

10.              SIMPLE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
used to declare an act or event that will be happening in the future.
FORMULA :

Positive :
-         S + shall, will + be + V I (ing) +  . . .
Negative ;
-         S + shall, will + not + VI (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         Shall, will + S +be + VI (ing) +  . . .+ ?
-         Shall, will + not +be + VI (ing) + . . .+ ?

 Example :
-         I shall be studying at five o’clock tomorrow.
-         They will be working when he come back next week.
-         We shall be playing tennis at this time next Sunday.
-         You will be singing another song.
TIME SIGNAL
-         At this time next year
-         At this time tomorrow
-         At the same time next monday

11.              SIMPLE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
used to declare an act or event which has already begun in the past and soon completed in time to come
          FORMULA :


Positive :
-         S + shall, will + have + V III (been) + . . .
Negative :
-         S + shall, will +not + have + VIII (been) + . . .
Introgative :
-         Shall, will + S +have +V III (been) + . . . ?
-         Shall, will +not+ S +have +V III (been) + . . . ?


          Example :
-         We shall have arrived at hong kong by Monday.
-         They will have been a doctor by next year.
-         She will have known the news ten o’clock.
-         Miss maya will have mastered  adjectives by the end of the month.

12.              SIMPLE FUTURE PERFECT  CONTINUOUS TENSE
used to declare an act or event which has already begun in the past but still there is the possibility of resumed in the future.
           FORMULA :

Positive :
-         S + shall,will + have + been+ V I (ing) + . . .
Negative :
-         : S + shall,will + not + have + been+ V I (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         shall,will+ S + have + been+ V I (ing) + …?
-          shall,will+ S +not+ have + been+ V I (ing) +… ?


          Example :
-         By june 2005 I shall have been working here for five years.
-         They will have been studying English for three years by the end of july 2001.
-         She will have been living here for ten years.
-         I will have been singing.
-         We shall have been studying.
13.                SIMPLE PAST FUTURE TENSE
used to declare an act or event that will happen in the past,
          FORMULA :

Positive :
-         S +should, would+ VI(be)+…
Negative :
-         S +should, would+not+ VI(be)+…
Introgative :
-         should, would+S + VI(be)+….?
-         should, would+S+not+ VI(be)+…. ?



          Example :
-         I should be there last night.
-         He would come here with father last Sunday.
-         You would buy a car the day before.
-         He would be in batam last week.
-         Mr. Wakir would go to your house .

14.                SIMPLE PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
used to declare an act or event that will be happening in the past.
          FORMULA :

Positive :
-         S + should, would  + be + VI(ing) + . . .
Negative :
-         S + should, would + not + be + VI (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         should, would + S + be + VI (ing) + …?
-         should, would +not + S  + be + VI (ing) +  …?


Example :
-         I should be going to Tokyo
-         They would be talking to each other at nine yesterday.
-         She would be reading in the library.
-         I should be taking my exams that week.
-         I knew Mr. latief would be coming that way.

15.                SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
used to declare an act or event that will be completed in the past or expressed a supposition that can not happen because the conditions are not met.
          FORMULA :

Positive :
-         S + should, would + have + VIII (been) + . . .
Negative :
-         S + should, would + not +have + VIII (been) + . . .
Introgative :
-         should, would+S  + have + VIII (been) + . . . ?
-         should, would + not + S +have + VIII (been) + . . . ?


         
Example :
-         I shoul have been at home.
-         He would have graduated.
-         You would hacome here if  I phoned you.
-         Mr. Daud salam afraid his friend would have left before he got there.
-         We should have helped him.

16.               SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
used to declare an act or event that will already taking place in the past.

FORMULA :

Positive :
-         S + should, would +have + been + VI (ing) + . . .
Negative :
-         S + should, would + not +have + been + VI (ing) + . . .
Introgative :
-         should, would + S + have + been + VI (ing) + …?
-         should, would +not + S + have + been + VI (ing) +  …?


Example :
-         we should have been working.
-         The would have been living in malang.
-         He would have been working together.
-         He would have been teaching in the elementary school.
-         I should have been studying math.


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